Introduction to Investing

Many people, like you, are looking to the market to buy a home, send their kids to college, or save for retirement. However, unlike banks where deposits are backed by federal deposit insurance, the value of stocks, bonds and other securities fluctuates with market conditions. No one can guarantee that an investment will be profitable, and it may depreciate in value.

Introduction to investing (asset classes) for beginners

A word of advice for beginners before starting to invest in earnest… Calm down. The field of investing is vast and there is an almost endless amount of things to learn about investing. The most successful and brightest investors say they are constantly learning, honing and improving their skills to make money in the financial markets. You can’t learn everything about investing or investing for beginners in one day, but luckily you don’t have to start your investing career as a successful and profitable investor.

One of the most obvious shortcomings of our education system is the lack of even basic personal finance and investment training. One of the most successful traders in history once said: “If I had only been taught about investing in high school and only taught myself later, I would probably have retired well at 35.”

While this may be a somewhat “optimistic” estimate of investment success, anyone can potentially reap huge financial returns by simply taking the time to learn the basics of investing as quickly as possible.

So please be grateful if you are reading this guide with his 16 year old. But don’t be discouraged if you’re well past high school, or if you’re middle-aged. It’s never too late to start building wealth with investments. The sooner you start, the sooner you can achieve your financial dreams, well beyond the novice investor.

Here we would like to emphasize two truths of his. Firstly, whether he is 16 or he is 60, if you take the time to learn even the most basic investment knowledge, you will be much better off than others in terms of financial literacy and, ultimately, in terms of financial literacy. you will be able to get ahead. conditions for financial success. The second truth comes from one of the wealthiest commodity futures traders. 

And it’s quite an investment: make more money to make more money.


Major types of investment

This is the basics of investing for beginners. The list of specific investments you can make is endless, but almost all investments fall into one of several categories commonly referred to as “asset classes.” Asset classes consist of investments with similar characteristics and are generally governed by the same set of financial rules. Four asset classes

The active lessons that most people know are as follows.


1) Stocks /Equities

2) Investment in fixed bonds /income

3) Financial equivalent items such as cash market funds

4) Mutual funds

5) Exchange -Trade fund (ETF)

There are several other asset classes that can study investment at a specific time, including:

1) A period contract with products such as oil and gold

2) Alternative investment including real estate

3) Cover the foundation / Hedge Fund

Note: In general, alternative investment is generally not fluid than conventional asset classes. For example, stocks are very fluid assets, but investment in private stocks may require investment capital in the lowest period of 5 to 7 years. 


stock market

What are Stocks?

A stock is a type of security that gives shareholders shares in a company. Actions are also called “shares”.


Why do people buy stocks?

Investors buy stocks for a variety of reasons. Here are some.

1- A capital gain that occurs when a stock increases in value.

2- Dividends generated when a company distributes part of its profits to shareholders.

3- Ability to vote for stocks and influence society


Why do companies issue stock?

Companies issue shares to raise various funds. This includes:

1- Debt repayment

2- New products launched

3- Expansion into new markets or geographies

4- Expansion or new construction of facilities

What kind of Stocks are there? 

There are two main types of shares: common stocks and preferred stocks.

A- Common stock gives its holders the right to vote at the general meeting and receive dividends.

B- Preferred shareholders generally do not have voting rights, but receive dividends earlier than common shareholders and have priority over common shareholders in the event of bankruptcy and liquidation of assets.



What are Bonds? 

Buying bonds is a traditional way of hedging a diversified stock portfolio. When stocks fall, bonds typically rise, but yields typically fall. The old rule was to keep the age in bonds – 30.30% bonds, 60.60% bonds. But bond yields have been so low for so long that a new rule was put in place. It is said that you subtract your age from 110 and invest the rest in stocks. So by the time you’re 30, you’ll own 80% of stocks and 20% of bonds. 

You can buy bond funds, real bonds and junk bonds and create ladders from bonds maturing at different times. So, you can actually invest in bonds just like you would in stocks. A bond is a debt security similar to an IOU. Borrowers sell bonds to investors who lend them money for a certain period of time.When you buy a bond, you hand it over to an issuer, such as a government, local authority, or corporation.In exchange, the issuer agrees to pay a set interest rate of interest over the life of the bond and to repay the principal amount of the bond, also known as face value, if the bond is “redeemed” or past due. increase. period. 


Why do people buy bonds?

Here are some reasons why investors buy bonds:

1- Provides a predictable revenue stream. Interest on bonds is generally paid twice a year.

2- By holding the bond to maturity, the bondholder will get back the full principal amount. Bonds are therefore a means of preserving capital while investing. 

3- Bonds help offset the risks associated with more volatile equities.

Corporations, governments and municipalities issue bonds to raise funds for a variety of purposes, including:

1- Secure operating cash flow

2- Financial liabilities

3- Financing capital investments for schools, highways, hospitals and other projects

Mutual Funds

Mutual funds

What are Mutual funds? 

Mutual funds are a collection of different investments (often primarily stocks) that have something in common, such as the companies that make up a stock market index (see our sidebar for more on the fun of index funds) or specific asset classes. It’s a basket in it. (fixed income, international equities) or a specific sector (energy companies, technology stocks). Some mutual funds only invest in companies that adhere to certain ethical and environmental principles.

The beauty of mutual funds is that an investor can buy a neatly packaged set of investments in his single transaction. Instant and easy diversification (access to different companies) without having to buy stocks one by one.

A mutual fund is a firm that gathers money from a large number of people and invests it in securities such as stocks, bonds, and short-term bonds. A portfolio is constructed by combining investment trust assets. Investors buy shares in mutual funds. Each share represents an investor’s share in the fund and the return the fund generates.


Why do people buy Mutual funds? 

Mutual funds are popular among investors because they typically have the following characteristics:

1- Professional management. A fund manager will do the research for you. They select securities and monitor their performance.

2- Diversify, or “Don’t put all your eggs in one basket for her.” Mutual funds typically invest in a variety of companies and industries. This reduces the risk if the company goes bankrupt.

3- Availability. Most mutual funds charge relatively small fees for initial investment and subsequent purchases.

4- Liquidity. Mutual fund investors can easily redeem their shares at any time for the current net asset value (NAV) plus redemption fees.


Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs)


This overview covers only ETFs registered as public investment companies or unit trusts under the Investment Companies Act 1940 (the “1940 Act”). This does not apply to other types of listed products not registered under the 1940 Act, such as exchange traded funds and listed bonds. The information below is of a general nature and is not intended to address the details of your financial situation. When considering investment, please make an investment decision after fully understanding the specific investment product. 

What are ETFs?

ETFs contain a wide range of investments, from stocks and bonds to currencies and cash. The advantage of ETFs is that they trade like stocks. That means investors can buy his ETFs for less than the $500 minimum investment required by many mutual funds.

Most financial advisors advise first-time investors to India to consider exchange traded funds before buying large amounts of individual stocks. This is because ETFs provide diversified portfolios across companies and sectors to achieve sustainable long-term growth.

ETFs generally track an index and compare its performance to a low average cost of about 1% of funds invested each year. Over time, as you become more focused and have more capital available, you may want to add other types of ETFs, such as industry funds, commodity funds, or other categories.


An ETF is a type of exchange-traded investment product that must be registered with the Securities and Exchange Board of India as a public investment company (commonly known as a “fund”) or Mutual Funds in India are established in the form of a Trust under Indian Trust Act, 1882, in accordance with SEBI (Mutual Funds) Regulations, 1996. ETFs provide investors with a fund that combines their cash, invests in stocks, bonds, and other assets, and generates interest just like mutual funds do.However, unlike mutual funds, ETF shares are traded at market prices on domestic stock exchanges. The market price may or may not correspond to the net asset value (“NAV”) of the stock, i.e. the value of the ETF’s assets. Less debt divided by shares outstanding. 


Types of ETFs:-

Types of ETFs

1- Index ETFs

Most ETFs traded on the market are index based. These ETFs seek to track safety measures such as the S&P 500 stock index and typically invest primarily in the securities that make up the index. 


2- Actively managed ETFs

Actively managed ETFs are not indexed. Instead, it seeks to achieve its stated investment goals by investing in portfolios of stocks, bonds and other assets. Unlike index ETFs, his actively managed ETF advisors can actively trade portfolio components daily regardless of index compliance. The last word

Don’t invest in what you don’t understand.If you can’t communicate your investment opportunity in a concise, clear manner, you should rethink.

Finally, consider seeking advice from an investment professional. If so, be sure to work with someone who understands your investment goals and risk tolerance. An investment specialist should be able to understand complex products and explain how they fit your goals. 



What is Commodity trading?

Buying and selling stocks is called trading. When trading commodities, retail customers buy and sell stocks through exchanges. Commodities are raw materials used in everyday life. Commodities include food, grains, wheat, corn, soybeans, crude oil, gold, silver, copper, natural gas, and more. Goods can be physically moved from one location to another. This is the best way to diversify your stocks. Traders can purchase commodities on the derivatives market or enter into trading futures and options. 


Indian Commodity Exchange

To start trading commodities, you need a platform. There are many commodity exchanges in India. here is the list

MCX – Multi Commodity Exchange

NCDEX – National Commodity and Derivatives Exchange

NMCE – National Multi Commodity Exchange

ICEX – Indian Commodity Exchange

ACE – Ace derivatives Exchange

UCX – Universal Commodity Exchange

Hedge fund

Hedge fund

A hedge mutual fund is a type of mutual fund established as a private limited liability investment company. embarrassed? Well, this product is a little complicated.

According to the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), “Hedge funds, including funds of funds, are unregistered private partnerships that can invest and trade in many markets, strategies and various instruments (including securities). , a fund, or an investment pool”). and derivatives), are not subject to the same regulatory requirements as mutual funds.

There are different types of hedge funds, depending on the securities they invest in and their investment strategies. Regulatory requirements:

Indian hedge funds are not required to register with our market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (Sebi), nor to disclose their end-of-day net asset value. All other mutual funds must comply with these regulatory requirements. 


What is a Hedge fund?

Hedge funds pool investors’ money and invest it in securities and other types of investments to generate positive returns. Hedge funds are less regulated than mutual funds and generally have more freedom to make investments and strategies that may increase the risk of investment loss. Hedge funds are reserved for institutional investors such as pension funds as well as wealthy investors who can afford the high fees and risks involved in investing in hedge funds. 


How do Hedge funds make money?

Hedge funds invest in various securities and other assets to generate income. You can also invest in more speculative businesses such as hedge funds that bet on future prices of commodities. Hedge funds typically charge a performance fee, which is a percentage of the profits the fund generates. 


What types of Hedge funds are there?

Hedge funds come in four different categories.

Types of Hedge fund

1- Equity Hedge Funds: These funds bet on stocks either long (bet that the stock price will go up) or short (bet that the stock price will go down). 

2- Hedge funds that place bets on corporate events including mergers, acquisitions, and bankruptcies are known as event-driven hedge funds.

3- Macro hedge funds: These funds bet on economic indicators such as interest rates, inflation and exchange rates. 

4- Relative value hedge funds. These funds focus on the relative returns of assets such as bonds and commodities.


What exactly is the distinction between hedge funds and mutual funds? 

The main difference between hedge funds and mutual funds is that mutual funds are subject to rules set by the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), while hedge funds are not. Hedge funds are typically open to qualified investors only,While mutual funds are open to anyone. Hedge funds typically employ more aggressive investment strategies than mutual funds, including short selling, leverage and derivatives. These strategies help hedge funds earn higher returns, but they also come with higher risks. 

How do hedge funds work?

These funds use different types of trading methods depending on the securities and assets they invest in. They invest in stocks, bonds and derivatives.

Examples of derivatives include futures and options. As with stocks and bonds, they can be traded on an exchange or purchased directly from a company through a private placement.

For example, a futures contract has the right or obligation to buy or sell the underlying asset at a predetermined price and time. Options trading is similar, but without commitment. Investing in such securities automatically diversifies the way you trade. Hedge mutual funds pool funds from large investors such as high net worth individuals (HNIs), endowments, banks, pension funds and commercial companies. They are classified as AIFs (Alternative Investment Funds) – Category III. This pooled funds will be used to invest in such securities in domestic and international markets.

There is a long list of securities hedge funds can invest in, including stocks, bonds, real estate, currencies, convertible bonds and derivatives. Real estate investment trust (REIT)

REITs Real estate, gold, and other securities


Stocks and bonds are easy to come by, but almost anything you can expect to appreciate can be part of your investment portfolio.

Investing in real estate is one way. You can buy your own home or rent a property (some people question that a home is considered an investment because you have to own it, but that’s a secondary problem). You can try ETFs and real estate investment trusts (REITs). Alternatively, there are a handful of specialist investment brokers available who can participate in trades with very low buy-ins.

Investing in metals, especially gold, has always been considered a safe haven in the event of a stock market crash, especially in India. In fact, most commodities can be invested in through the futures market or ETFs, but it may not be as fun as throwing a gold coin in your pocket. (However, it can be difficult to keep privately.)

Why Invest in REITs?

REITs offer individual investors the opportunity to take a share of the income generated from owning commercial real estate without having to go out and buy the commercial property. What types of REITs are there?

Many REITs are registered and listed with the SEBI. They are known as listed REITs. Some are registered with the SEBI but are not traded on exchanges. These are known as non-market REITs (also known as non-market REITs). This is one of the most important differences between different types of REITs. Before investing in a REIT, you should understand whether the REIT is listed and how that may affect profits and risks.


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